BPSS : Bio-Psycho-Social-Spiritual
The BPSS model accepts there are multiple causes and multiple solutions.
Many things influence the development of and recovery from depression, anxiety and stress. While we do not yet know how these various influences combine, we do know there are two basic types.
One type of influence is biological forces, such a person's genetics.
The second type is environmental influences, such as people's early life experiences.
The Bio-Psycho-Social-Spiritual (BPSS) Model of recovery recognizes these different aspects of conditions are inter-related.
Given the lack of certainty about what causes these conditions, controversies emerge. People often debate the best and most effective approach to addiction treatment and recovery.
The BPPS model accepts there are multiple causes and multiple solutions. Our position is that there is no one best approach. Given the infinite range of human diversity, it seems clear that each person must determine his or her own unique recipe for a successful recovery. Our goal is to introduce the various ingredients that may be useful in creating a personal recipe for recovery.
The term "model" implies an incomplete version. For instance, if we understand the theoretical reasons a ship floats and moves through the water in a certain way, we can build a model of a ship. It can look like a ship. It floats like a ship. It is even helpful for understanding how a ship works. The model helps us figure out how to fix problems on a full-size ship. Nonetheless, no matter how realistically we build my model ship, it will not exactly replicate a full-size ship. When we reduce a ship to model size, we can better understand ships in this smaller form. Other important details may be lost. The same is true for models of mental health recovery.
Furthermore, models of different ship types (aircraft carrier, cruise ship, fishing boat) will certainly look and function much differently. Yet, they are each valid models of ships. We cannot say an aircraft carrier, cruise ship, or fishing boat, is "wrong." That would be silly. They are just different and serve different purposes. The same is true for models of recovery. It makes no more sense to argue which model is best than it would to argue that a cruise ship is better than a fishing boat.
Each model will necessarily leave out some aspects of recovery that might be highly relevant and beneficial to some people.
Therefore it is up to each person to select, and to decide, which models are most relevant and beneficial. Different people will make different choices based upon their particular needs and circumstances. We want our model to guide and assist us, but not to trap us or limit us.
In practice, it is possible to combine models or elements of models. These mergers regularly occur.
Taken from an article by A. TOM HORVATH, PH.D., ABPP, KAUSHIK MISRA, PH.D., AMY K. EPNER, PH.D., AND GALEN MORGAN COOPER, PH.D.